History of DNA Timeline

History of DNA Timeline

DNA was first isolated by the Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher who, in 1869, discovered a microscopic substance in the pus of discarded surgical bandages. As it resided in the nuclei of cells, he called it "nuclein".In 1919 this discovery was followed by Phoebus Levene's identification of the base, sugar and phosphate nucleotide unit. Levene suggested that DNA consisted of a string of nucleotide units linked together through the phosphate groups. However, Levene thought the chain was short and the bases repeated in a fixed order. In 1937 William Astbury produced the first X-ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.

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Model of DNA Structure
Model of DNA Structure
n 1953, based on X-ray diffraction images taken by Rosalind Franklin and the information that the bases were paired, James D. Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first accurate model of DNA structure in the journal Nature. Experimental evidence for Watson and Crick's model were published in a series of five articles in the same issue of Nature. Of these, Franklin and Raymond Gosling's paper was the first publication of X-ray diffraction data that supported the Watson and Crick model, this issue also contained an article on DNA structure by Maurice Wilkins and his colleagues. In 1962, after Franklin's death, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. However, debate continues on who should receive credit for the discovery.
Forensics
DNA profiling was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys, and first used in forensic science to convict Colin Pitchfork in the 1988 Ender by murders case. People convicted of certain types of crimes may be required to provide a sample of DNA for a database. This has helped investigators solve old cases where only a DNA sample was obtained from the scene. DNA profiling can also be used to identify victims of mass casualty incidents.
Forensic DNA Testing
Forensic DNA Testing
Forensic DNA testing is typically used to identify/verify unknown biological evidence. Forensic samples are generally described as "non-standard" samples, such as Blood and blood stains (e.g. dried blood on garments, carpet, bedding, bandages, etc.), Seminal or vaginal fluid and dried stains (e.g. found on undergarments, bedding, clothing, etc.).Hair with roots intact and Licked envelopes and stamps, used drinking cups.
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