DNA Model Projects

DNA Model Projects

Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavours to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the 30-35,000 genes present in it.

The $3 billion project was founded in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Institutes of Health, and was expected to take 15 years. Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as huge advances in computing technology, a rough draft of the genome was finished in 2000.

The goals of the original HGP were not only to determine all 3 billion base pairs in the human genome with a minimal error rate, but to also identify all the genes in this vast amount of data. This part of the project is still ongoing although a preliminary count indicates about 30,000 genes in the human genome, which is far less than predicted by most scientists.

Another goal of the HGP was to develop faster, more efficient methods for DNA sequencing and sequence analysis and the transfer of these technologies to the industry.The process of identifying the boundaries of genes and other features in raw DNA sequence is called annotation and is the domain of bioinformatics. While expert biologists make the best annotators, such annotation proceeds slowly, and computer programs are increasingly used to meet the high-throughput demands of genome sequencing projects.

Genome project
Genome project
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus). The genome sequence for any organism requires the DNA sequences for each of the chromosomes in an organism to be determined. For bacteria, which usually have just one chromosome, a genome project will aim to map the sequence of that chromosome. Humans, with 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes, will require 24 separate chromosome sequences in order to represent the completed genome.
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